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Tangent line and tangent surface as vector spacesWe begin our study by some elementary Calculus. Now we have the function $f(x)=x^2+\frac{e^x}{x^2+1}$ as our example. It should not be a problem to find its tangent line at point $(0,1)$, by calculating its derivative, we have $l:x-y+1=0$ as the tangent line.$l$ is not a vector space since it does not get cross the origin, in general. But $l-\overrightarrow{OA}$ is a vector space. In general, suppose $P(x,y)$ is a point on the curve determined by ...