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“Mathematics doesn’t have a sense of time, but often we need to track time. So programmers borrow an idea from the field of formal logic and replace all functions (f: A → B) ↦ f: A × T → B where T is the partially ordered set t1 ... tn. If T is totally ordered we can then define a mutation as a tuple in M ⊆ Var × Val × Val × T such that <x, a, b, t> ∈ M ⇔ x[b, t'] ∈ x'[a, t]....